Forum posts

Posted 1 month ago2022-05-16 20:19:52 UTC
in Getting rid of the players weapons Post #346530
I suppose you're looking for player_weaponstrip?
I assume you're talking about level transitions? Did you try following this tutorial about changing levels?
As Oskar already said, you'll always have some quality loss, but the Paint program that comes with Windows is terrible for color conversions like this, pretty much any tool will produce better results. You could use a powerful image editor like GIMP or Photoshop, or a more advanced Paint-like program like Paint.NET, but a tool like Irfanview is also a good choice if you just need to convert some existing images.

Here's a comparison I did a while ago (this was for textures, which require the same conversion). As you can see, with Irfanview you'll hardly see any quality loss even with images that contain a lot of different colors and gradients. For 'easier' images like the cobblestone texture, any half-decent tool is good enough already:
User posted image
Posted 4 months ago2022-02-24 22:26:00 UTC
in Problems when level changes [Coding] Post #346293
So you've made the mega-health item responsible for reducing the players health back to 100? I can see why that causes problems: if the mega-health item isn't included when transitioning to another level, it won't exist in that other level, and so it can't reduce the players health. There's also another problem: if you pick up multiple mega-health items, all of them will eventually be reducing the players health back to 100, so the more of these items you pick up, the faster you'll lose any extra health.

I would move this health-reducing code somewhere to the player code (right after the call to CheckTimeBasedDamage seems like a reasonable spot), so it'll always work no matter which level you move to, and you'll avoid the rapid-health-reducing bug as well. This also means that mega-health items can delete themselves once they've been picked up, just like other items.

PS: calling programmers 'Lords of Coding' feels awkward... :\
Posted 4 months ago2022-02-05 23:57:17 UTC
in trigger a sprite to appear and disappear Post #346260
I'm not quite sure, but you could try adding a game_score entity, again with the same targetname as the airstrike multi_manager:
"classname" "game_score"
"targetname" "strike_mm"
"points" "1"
Posted 4 months ago2022-02-05 23:00:15 UTC
in trigger a sprite to appear and disappear Post #346258
Sure, just duplicate your env_sprite and adjust the origin of each copy. As long as they all have the same targetname, they'll all be triggered at the same time.
Posted 4 months ago2022-02-05 22:09:37 UTC
in trigger a sprite to appear and disappear Post #346256
Your sprite now has the same name as the multi_manager that handles the airstrike sequence, so its visibility will only be toggled each time the airstrike sequence starts. So when the airstrike is started for the first time, your sprite will become visible, and will remain so. When the airstrike is started a second time, your sprite will become invisible. The third airstrike will make it visible again, and so on.

That's why you need to add a new multi_manager (with the same name as the airstrike multi_manager, so it will start at the same time):
"classname" "multi_manager"
"targetname" "strike_mm"
"usaflagdoc" "0"
"usaflagdoc#1" "45"
And this is how your sprite entity should look like:
"origin" "1 -949 -1440"
"scale" "1.0"
"model" "sprites/usaflagdoc.spr"
"rendercolor" "255 255 255"
"renderamt" "255"
"rendermode" "4"
"renderfx" "14"
"framerate" "20"
"classname" "env_sprite"
"targetname" "usaflagdoc"
Posted 4 months ago2022-02-05 21:21:40 UTC
in trigger a sprite to appear and disappear Post #346254
Ah, I see. Well, the first problem is that the names that you're using in your multi_manager do not match the targetname of your sprite. If your sprite contains "targetname" "usaflagdoc", then your multi_manager should contain "usaflagdoc" "0" and "usaflagdoc#1" "45".

But the second problem is that an env_glow cannot be enabled/disabled... so you'll have to use an env_sprite instead. Just change "classname" "env_glow" to "classname" "env_sprite". An env_sprite with a targetname will initially be disabled, and it will become visible when triggered (and invisible when triggered again).

While we're at it, sprites are only updated 10 times per second, so with a framerate of 20, every second sprite frame will be skipped.
Posted 4 months ago2022-02-05 18:46:36 UTC
in trigger a sprite to appear and disappear Post #346250
You can make that sprite get triggered at the same time as the sirens by adding the following line to it:
"targetname" "strike_siren"
Or if you prefer the bunker door timing:
"targetname" "bunker_maindoor"
For custom timings, you could add a new multi_manager with the same name as the multi_manager that's handling the whole sequence, so they get activated at the same time:
"classname" "multi_manager"
"targetname" "strike_mm"
"your_sprite_targetname" "0"
"your_sprite_targetname#1" "10"
You can adjust the 0 and 10 to whatever times (in seconds) that you like. Just as with the siren or main door timings, this also requires your sprite to have a name, but now you should use a name that isn't used anywhere else, to ensure that your multi_manager will be the only entity that's triggering your sprite:
"targetname" "your_sprite_targetname"
Posted 4 months ago2022-02-04 23:44:54 UTC
in trigger a sprite to appear and disappear Post #346248
It looks like the 'strike_mm' multi_manager is what orchestrates the whole airstrike sequence. It immediately activates the sirens and disables them after 45 seconds, and after 20 seconds it closes the main door and opens it again after 64 seconds, among other things.

There are several things you can do. The easiest approach is to give your sprite the same name as the sirens ('strike_siren') or as the bunker door ('bunker_maindoor'), so it will be triggered alongside the sirens or the bunker door. But that depends on whether you're happy with those timings.

If you want a different timing for your sprite, then you'll have to add some entries to the 'strike_mm' multi_manager. The problem is that a multi_manager can only trigger up to 16 targets, and this one is already triggering 15, so you can only add one entry. So you'll need to create a new multi_manager, and either make 'strike_mm' trigger it, or give it the same name as 'strike_mm', so it gets triggered at the same time. You can then add two entries to this new multi_manager, for enabling and disabling your sprite.
Posted 5 months ago2022-01-21 10:02:55 UTC
in info_node on func_wall Post #346213
func_walls have an internal `FL_WORLDBRUSH` flag set, so they're treated as world brushes when the node-graph is generated. The only other entity that also has this flag set is func_breakable, but only when its Material Type is set to 'Unbreakable glass' and when its Render Mode is not set to 'Normal'.

I don't know if these internal flags can be written to, but if so then you could try adding a flags property to an entity and setting it to 33554432 (that'll set the 26th bit, which is the FL_WORLDBRUSH flag).

If that doesn't work then the next thing I would try is to generate the node-graph using a custom version of the map (one with additional func_walls). Apparently HL will only rebuild a .nod file if the .bsp file is newer, so it should be possible to trick HL by first creating a normal .bsp, backing it up, then creating a custom .bsp (extra func_walls), using that to generate the .nod file, and then restoring the normal .bsp file. It might even be possible to strip the info_nodes from the normal .bsp if you need to save space for other entities. Fully automating this process might be a bit tricky because HL must be launched to build the node-graph...
I'm not familiar with how env_sky works, but if you're using Vluzacn's ZHLT tools then you could try putting a reversed info_overview_point in your sky room. That will cause the VIS process to mark that room as visible from anywhere else, which I think will also affect the transfer of entities between server and client.
Posted 6 months ago2021-12-19 13:45:11 UTC
in Changing a texture's palette Post #346130
All of the popular wad-making tools can convert true-color RGB images to the 8-bit indexed format that HL uses. So if you're using Wally or HL Texture Tools then there are only a few cases where you need to work with palettes directly (when adjusting water fog color/intensity and when making custom decals). The typical workflow is to make a true-color texture in Photoshop/Gimp/Krita/whatever, using all the modern image-editing tools that they provide, and then export it to a bmp/png file which can then be added to a wad file with a wad-making tool.

Personally I don't like working with palettes at all, and I don't like having to export files and then having to manually update a wad file, so a while ago I made a new tool called WadMaker. It lets you create (or update) a wad file from a directory full of images (or Photoshop/Krita/Gimp files) with just a single action. Here's a tutorial on how to get started: Making textures with WadMaker (it's a command-line tool so it's not as easy to get started with as Wally or HL Texture Tools). For Gimp file support you'll need to do a bit of configuration, see WadMaker: Converting Gimp files, or follow the instructions in the wadmaker.config file.
Can admin rename this thread to a more suitable name, so someone with the same problem can find this thread and script more easily?
As you wish.
I've updated the script with a fix for the UV offset (it now adds 1 to the result of half_float(t) before multiplying it with the texture height), and added a note about the minimum Python version. It turns out that formatted strings were introduced in Python 3.6. I haven't used Python much the past few years but I figured a Python script would be easier to share (and to analyze and modify!) than an executable. And it should run on almost any OS. ;)
I knew I had some model-loading code lying around but that turned out to be far from finished, so this took a bit longer than intended. It's indeed just a normalized half-float to absolute integer conversion, so I think I misinterpreted the .smd coordinates format, but working with mdl files directly is more accurate anyway so I didn't investigate the smd approach any further. So, here's a Python script (requires Python 3.6 or higher) for converting Xash models to GoldSource's format (be sure to change the input_path and output_path variables on lines 6 and 7 before you run the script):
import struct

def main():
    # Change these paths depending on which Xash model you want to convert:
    input_path = r'C:\your\models\folder\bpop2.mdl'
    output_path = r'C:\your\models\folder\bpop2_converted.mdl'

    # Read texture sizes:
    print(f'Reading \'{input_path}\'.')
    with open(input_path, 'rb') as file:
        data = bytearray(

    texture_sizes = read_texture_sizes(data)
    if len(texture_sizes) == 0:
        # No texture information? Let's look for a *t.mdl file:
            texture_file_path = input_path[:-4] + 't.mdl'
            print(f'Reading \'{texture_file_path}\'.')
            with open(texture_file_path) as file:
                texture_sizes = read_texture_sizes(
        except Exception as e:
            print(f'Failed to read \'{texture_file_path}\', unable to obtain texture size information.')
            raise e
    print(f'Texture sizes: {texture_sizes}\n')

    # Convert UV data from Xash' normalized half-float format to GoldSource's absolute int16 format:
    converted_count = 0
    print('Converting UV coordinates.')
    bodypart_count, bodypart_offset = struct.unpack_from('<ii', data, 204)
    for bodypart in range(bodypart_count):
        model_count, model_offset = struct.unpack_from('<ixxxxi', data, bodypart_offset + (bodypart * 76) + 64)
        for model in range(model_count):
            mesh_count, mesh_offset = struct.unpack_from('<ii', data, model_offset + (model * 112) + 72)
            for mesh in range(mesh_count):
                vertex_offset, skin = struct.unpack_from('<ii', data, mesh_offset + (mesh * 20) + 4)
                texture_size = texture_sizes[skin]
                offset = vertex_offset
                while True:
                    sequence_length = abs(struct.unpack_from('<h', data, offset)[0])
                    offset += 2
                    if sequence_length == 0:

                    for vertex in range(sequence_length):
                        s, t = struct.unpack_from('<HH', data, offset + 4)
                        struct.pack_into('<hh', data, offset + 4, round(half_float(s) * texture_size[0]), round((1 + half_float(t)) * texture_size[1]))
                        offset += 8
                        converted_count += 1
    print(f'Converted {converted_count} UV coordinates.\n')

    # Save the modified data to the output file:
    print(f'Writing \'{output_path}\'.')
    with open(output_path, 'wb') as file:

def read_texture_sizes(data):
    texture_count, texture_offset = struct.unpack_from('<ii', data, 180)
    return [struct.unpack_from('<ii', data, texture_offset + (i * 80) + 68) for i in range(texture_count)]

def half_float(value):
    isPositive = (value & 0x8000) == 0
    exponent = (value & 0x7C00) >> 10
    fraction = value & 0x03FF

    if exponent == 0:
        if fraction == 0:
            return 0.0
            return (1 if isPositive else -1) * pow(2, -14) * (fraction / 1024.0)
    elif exponent == 31:
        if fraction == 0:
            return float('inf') if isPositive else float('-inf')
            return float('nan')
        return (1 if isPositive else -1) * pow(2, exponent - 15) * (1.0 + (fraction / 1024.0))

if __name__ == '__main__':
EDIT: Fixed the UV offset issue.
I fixed up my previous post so the code is now proper Python, instead of Python-esque pseudo-code.
For example, how to interpret 32.03125 ? It's not in the 0.0-1.0 range.
That probably means I guessed the wrong texture size. Or there's something else going on. Perhaps you could share this model so I can do some proper testing?
Posted 7 months ago2021-11-15 20:57:39 UTC
in Adding a bit more enemies Post #346063
Yes, it's possible to change entities in existing maps. One tool that you can use is BSPEdit, which lets you edit the 'raw' entity data in a bsp file. Editing that data by hand can be error-prone, so you may find it easier to copy-paste it into an empty .map file and then modify the entities with Hammer or JACK, then copy-paste them from the modified .map file back into the bsp file (.map and .bsp files use the same format for entity data). Oh, and it's also a good idea to make a backup before you're going to modify a bsp file.
As far as I know .smd files use normalized UV coordinates (0.0-1.0 range), but HL models store them as 16-bit integer 'texture pixel' coordinates instead (0-width and 0-height range). To translate between these, a compiler has to multiply UV coordinates by texture size - and consequently a decompiler has to divide UV coordinates by texture size. So to get back to the raw values as stored in the .mdl file, you'll have to multiply them by texture size, and then interpret the raw values as a half-floats (I assume they're using the IEEE 754 format).

I don't know how large that pop2.bmp texture is, but assuming that it's 512x512, I would expect the following normalized UV coordinates:
28.638672 (U) x 512 (texture width) = 14663.000064 -> 14663 (raw model U value) -> 0.6601563 (when interpreted as a half-float)
40.001953 (V) x 512 (texture height) = 20480.999936 -> 20481 (raw model V value) -> 32.03125 (when interpreted as a half-float)

Where the formula for half-float interpretation is something like this (in Python/pseudo-code):
def interpret_as_half_float(value):
    isPositive = (value & 0x8000) == 0
    exponent = (value & 0x7C00) >> 10
    fraction = value & 0x03FF

    if exponent == 0:
        if fraction == 0:
            return 0.0
            return (1 if isPositive else -1) * pow(2, -14) * (fraction / 1024.0)
    elif exponent == 31:
        if fraction == 0:
            return float('inf')
            return float('nan')
        return (1 if isPositive else -1) * pow(2, exponent - 15) * (1.0 + (fraction / 1024.0))
Disclaimer: I haven't tested this with an actual model, so I could be getting things wrong.
EDIT: Fixed a bug related to the inf/nan case (the special exponent value is 31, not 15).
I just finished a tutorial (with lots of pictures) for WadMaker: Making textures with WadMaker. Feedback is welcome. :)
Posted 9 months ago2021-09-21 20:36:50 UTC
in How to make a random generator? Post #345947
Yes, that's also possible. The catch is that the button press should enable and then quickly disable the beam, so that it can only trigger one random entity, instead of continuing to trigger random entities. Here's how you can do that:
  1. In the env_beam's properties, disable the 'Start On' flag and enable the 'Toggle' flag, so you can disable the beam by triggering it again.
  2. Set the env_beam's 'Life' property to 0.1 seconds - or longer, if you don't want it to be reusable too soon.
  3. Create a multi_manager, and make it trigger the env_beam twice. First with a delay of 0, then with a delay that matches the env_beam's 'Life' property.
  4. Set the 'Target' property of your func_button to the name of this multi_manager.
Posted 9 months ago2021-09-18 17:36:55 UTC
in How to make a random generator? Post #345938
Unfortunately Half-Life doesn't provide something like a trigger_random entity, but eventually some mapper(s) came up with a technique to trigger random entities. By using a high-damage env_beam that randomly targets one of several info_targets, and by placing func_buttons in front of those targets, you can trigger different entities depending on which info_target the beam decides to strike. It's described in more detail in the following tutorials: A Random Event Generator and Random entity triggering.

If you want to trigger multiple things at the same time, you can give them the same name (so they'll always be triggered together), or you can trigger a multi_manager, an entity that can trigger multiple entities (see Tutorial: Multi_manager for more info).
SpriteMaker is now available, and WadMaker has a few improvements and bugfixes (and some example configurations for setting up automatic Gimp and Aseprite file conversions)! See the first post in this thread for download links and a full changelog.
As far as I understand putting options/switches before (positional) arguments is a fairly wide-spread convention. C#'s standard library doesn't have anything for command-line parsing, so it's a trade-off between managing a dependency versus writing your own.

I marked your Github issues as enhancements. I think they're all good ideas that shouldn't take too much time to implement. Right now I'm working on finishing up SpriteMaker but I think I can spend some time on a MESS update after that.

Did you manage to resolve your expression error? One way to debug things would be to add a 'dummy entity' inside a template, using its attributes for 'logging' things. I also find it useful to have a compile mode in JACK that only runs MESS and then opens the modified map file with JACK.
You'll need to specify a log level (off, error, warning, info or verbose). Try setting it to warning or verbose and see if that gives you enough information. If that doesn't help, then what sort of error are we talking about? What does the expression look like?
Here's the documentation for macro_remove_if:
Used inside templates. When an instance of a template is created, anything inside the bounding box of this entity is excluded from that instance if the removal condition is true.

  • Removal condition (condition) - The condition that determines whether the contents of this entity must be excluded. none (empty) and 0 will prevent removal.
So yeah, you put it around brushes and entities just like you do with macro_template. The condition attribute behaves the same as other attributes, so you'll need braces if you want to use scripting. Even though that's almost always what you want, I decided that consistent attribute behavior was more important than shaving off a few braces. Both macro_template and macro_remove_if only apply to things that are fully inside their bounding box.

For an example on how to use macro_remove_if, take a look at examples\templates\rathunt\message_system.rmf. It's a template map that omits certain entities based on the attributes of the instance-creating entity, and it also uses a macro_remove_if to limit the recursion of a sub-template.

The problem with scaling is that it also affects the 'scale' attribute of point entities. But I could split that up into two attributes: one for entities ('Scale') and one for geometry ('Geometry scale'). That would also solve the problem where you want to scale up geometry but not entities. As for negative scales, that's currently not working correctly, I'll have to look into that.

As for producing rotated instances, that's exactly what macro_insert's 'Angles' property is for. Can you show me the results you get and what you expected to get? As well as the attributes of the macro entities involved?
I did investigate Gimp's file format a while ago, but the main problem is that it doesn't contain a flattened image. I'd have to implement layer compositing, but that's a fair bit of extra work. The same problem applies to Aseprite and Paint.NET files.

But WadMaker can be configured to use external (command-line) conversion tools, and there seem to be several tools that can convert .xcf files (Gimp's batch mode, xcf2png, ImageMagick, Irfanview). So if you can get one of these tools to work, then it's just a matter of creating a wadmaker.config file in your source image folder and adding a line like the following (where {input} is the full input .xcf path, and {output} is a .png file in a temporary folder):
*.xcf    converter: '"C:\Tools\XcfConverter.exe"' arguments: '-in="{input}" -out="{output}"'
The above is just an example. Once I'm done with SpriteMaker I'll update the documentation with .xcf and .aseprite file conversion examples.

As for automatic resizing, if you're talking about allowing images of arbitrary size then I don't think that's a good idea due to quality loss. But if you're working with high-res source images (say, 2x as large) then I guess a scaling factor setting could be useful. I'll think about it. For now, you could perhaps use the above converter approach to resize your images.
You don't need to do this. The compile tools will combine all world brushes into a single mesh and will remove any faces on the outside, so it's no problem if brushes are sticking out. That's also why decompiling gives such poor results: there's just not enough information in a bsp file to reconstruct the original brushwork.

1. If you really want to, you can use the vertex manipulation tool (Shift + V) to move the corners of your floor brush around. This mode also lets you create new edges (by selecting two existing vertices (white) or edges (yellow) and pressing Ctrl + F, or merge vertices by dragging them on top of each other. This is an advanced tool however, and using it incorrectly can produce invalid brushes, so use with care.

2. Judging from your screenshot, I can't tell whether you've got brushes with off-grid vertices, but you do have several points where the corners of two brushes join up next to the edge of another brush. That may result in tiny cracks between brushes, which is probably what's causing this 'ambiguous leaf node' error. That's one reason why I'd recommend sticking to a coarser grid size when working with 'structural' brushwork like this, and to stick to 'safe' slopes like 1:2, 1:4, etc, as that makes it easier to ensure that junction points like that are still perfectly aligned with the grid.
Posted 1 year ago2021-06-26 20:17:03 UTC
in Half-Life: Direct edit of compiled BSP files Post #345704
BSPEdit allows you to edit entity data in bsp files. You'll need to be careful to keep the data properly formatted though. It also saves bsp files in-place, so it's a good idea to make backups first.
Posted 1 year ago2021-06-13 22:41:36 UTC
in Duplicate faces when rendering HL1 BSP map? Post #345699
That's due to how sky brushes are compiled - it's not a bug in your code. Apparently sky brush surfaces are turned into double-sided faces - which is why several faces in your map are on opposite sides of the same plane, using the same vertices but in reverse order. Another quirk is that, unlike with other brushes, the tools also produce faces for the 'outside' surfaces of those sky brushes. Maybe there's a good reason for this behavior, I'm not sure.
WadMaker 1.1 is now available!
It can be downloaded here. For more information, see the readme.

New features:
  • Added support for Photoshop files (.psd, .psb) that have been saved with 'maximize compatibility' enabled.
  • Added support for Krita (.kra) and OpenRaster (.ora) files.
  • Added support for creating and extracting decal wad files (decals.wad).
  • Updated the wadmaker.config system to apply all matching rules (with more specific rules overriding less specific ones).
  • Console output is now logged to a file (only in create-wad mode). This can be disabled with a command-line option.
  • Fixed that removing an image with an uppercase name would cause updating a wad file to fail.
  • Fixed that water color was accidentally black by default.

WadMaker will automatically switch to decal mode when the ouput wad file name is 'decals.wad', and it expects input images to have an alpha channel - which it will use to create the decal texture. The average color of the input image is used as decal color. If you're not sure what format is expected, then first try extracting a decals.wad file, and take a look at the extracted images. It's also possible to enable grayscale input with a wadmaker.config setting - in that case you should also specify the decal color in the settings file.

As for Photoshop files, not all compression methods are supported because I could only find test files with raw and RLE compressed composite images. So please let me know if certain files don't work. I can add support as soon as I get some files to test with.
Posted 1 year ago2021-05-21 12:34:46 UTC
in How to make an explosive crate? Post #345658
Try a (much) larger value. The explosion magnitude affects both the amount of damage and the damage radius (apparently the radius is 2.5x the magnitude value). Also keep in mind that explosions do less damage to entities that are further away.
Posted 1 year ago2021-05-21 11:06:23 UTC
in How to make an explosive crate? Post #345656
A func_breakable with its 'Explode Magnitude' set to a value higher than 0 should do the trick.
If you're talking about writing custom game code, then the wiki here contains a guide that looks pretty comprehensive: Half-Life Programming: Getting Started. What exactly do you want to achieve?
always thought "that's way too much for me" (I was mostly used to CS mapping).
I also started out as a mapper, years ago. I eventually started experimenting with the game code and I somehow managed to make the MP5 launch a grenade with each shot, but I couldn't really do much else. Now, years later, I do programming for a living... So yeah, give it a go, and don't get discouraged if things seem complicated at first. Feel free to ask for help whenever you're stuck. :)
Thanks! Don't hesitate to ask if you have questions or feedback. :)
Disclaimer: I'm a bit of a perfectionist, so don't take what I'm about to say too seriously! ;)

This is basically a text-only Powerpoint presentation. A slideshow can be an interesting way to provide an optional piece of lore. But here, it's essentially a slow, boring cut-scene with no skip button, with a nerve-wracking humming sound in the background and blurry text that's barely readable. The text itself is fairly long-winded.

So the background story is that there's this 'SDI' laboratory that's using prisoners like you as test subjects, and you're about to escape their facilities. How do you tell that story in an interesting way? By letting the player experience the story. Have them start out in a cell-block: that immediately tells them they're a prisoner, and gives them a goal: to escape. Make the walls look like a modern laboratory, add windows that overlook test chambers, put appropriate signs on the walls, and players can now figure out on their own that they're in a test facility. A big 'Space Dynamic Incorporated' logo in a lounge somewhere tells them the name of the place. And don't just throw enemies at the player: let some alarms go off first. Let them know that their escape has been detected and that security is on their way. Make it part of the story!

My overall impression: the architecture, texturing and lighting are very basic. Rooms are blocky, with almost no detail, and the furniture that is present is out of proportion. Most of the rooms do look like they have an actual purpose, but the lack of detail and the somewhat illogical connection between the rooms doesn't make it feel like a realistic place. The dead grunts and scientist, and the zombies and houndeyes make it feel like a standard Half-Life disaster scenario, there's no sign of a custom story.

Enemy placement suffers from a common problem in that most enemies are just passively waiting for the player to show up. It makes the first rooms feel a bit dull. The grunts on the other hand are actively invading the place, which is a good change of pace. In general I felt there were too many enemies compared to how much ammo the player had, and putting grunts on high ground so early on in a level seems unfair. Then again, they felt easier to kill and less damaging than standard HL grunts. I'm not sure whether that's a good thing: how are you going to ramp up difficulty in later levels if you already need this many grunts so early?

I kinda like the idea of having to charge into a room to grab a powerful weapon, but I don't think it worked well here: the shotgun is barely visible and the houndeyes are quickly grabbing the player's attention anyway. The same goes for the closet on the side: the ammo and armor there give you a major advantage, but that's just not visible from the outside.

Other notes:
  • The slow movement speed was quite annoying. Having to hold a button to run isn't such a great idea for a fast-paced shooter. I think it's interesting how you managed to implement it, but it's also easy to break when changing keyboard bindings.
  • Instakill barriers are frustrating, especially when they don't look like they would kill you instantly. Just let the steam apply some burning damage and push the player back. Also, a pipe would (hopefully) never be placed like that in real-life!
  • The textures in the first room (old, industrial) don't match the furniture (cubicles, desks).
  • The scientist is partially inside the table.
  • The doors are frustrating: their keycard locks often collide with the player, causing them to close again immediately, and it takes a long time before they open again.
  • The tripmine doesn't get triggered by the houndeyes - that looks like a bug. However, I do like how you can use the houndeyes to blow up the mine with their sonic attack, and how a quick-thinking player can use the explosive crate to their advantage.
  • The large crate in this room doesn't fit through either door. Logic mistakes like this are not uncommon in maps, but they're a bit jarring once you notice them.
  • The HEV not working felt like a bug. It's probably a good idea to first introduce the body armor pickup before showing a HEV charger (if you need to show one at all).
  • The weapon closet texture scaling looks strange, and parts of the text look poorly copy-pasted. Why is the MP5 hidden behind the sign?
  • The reception hall provides the most interesting combat, but players probably end up camping in the doorway, or they find their way to the closet only to continue camping there. I don't think the layout does a good job of forcing the player to make interesting decisions.
  • In the concrete alley, having a grunt launch contact grenades from a high place around a corner... I'm not sure I would classify that as 'fun'.
  • The gap between the sandbag walls looks passable, but the player is blocked by an invisible wall. If something is impassable then it should clearly look impassable to prevent frustration.
  • The 'Leave game' text in the menu is messed up somehow.
  • The download contains a lot of models and sound files. Are all of these custom? If not, you may want to remove them to reduce download size.
  • The same goes for the screenshots, there's no need to include them. But if you do want to, then save them as jpg or png files to reduce filesize.
I hope this proves useful to you, and that I didn't sound too harsh!
Judging by a previous question of yours, and by the paths in your compile log, you're working on a mod, right? Did you verify that the bsp file is actually located in the Half-Life\yourmoddirectory\maps directory (where yourmoddirectory is the name of your mod's directory)? And are you starting hl.exe with the -game yourmoddirectory argument (you can also start your mod through Steam, which does the same thing)? If you're not doing that, then you're running the base game Half-Life (not your mod), which will only look for bsp files in the Half-Life\valve\maps directory.

You should also put any custom wad files you're using in your mod's directory.
You've got several invalid brushes. It looks like you've been using vertex manipulation. That's an advanced tool that can easily produce invalid shapes, so it's better not to use it until you have a better understanding of how to keep a brush valid. Use the clipping tool (Shift+X) instead, or the shearing tool (click on a selected brush in a 2D view to cycle between resize, rotate and shear modes).

The texture scales on your brushes vary wildly. It's often a good idea to keep them consistent (most textures are designed to be used with scale 1). This is probably caused by the various texture-locking modes that J.A.C.K. has enabled by default - I usually disable them.

Your func_door_rotating's don't have origin brushes. I replied to your question about that, but what I didn't mention explicitly is that an origin brush must be part of an entity. Normally you'd create both the visible brushes and the origin brush, select all of them, and then turn them into an entity. You already have a func_door_rotating entity, so in this case you'd create an origin brush, then select both the func_door_rotating and the origin brush, then press the 'To Entity' button (Ctrl+T), and select 'Yes' when it asks you to add the selected solids to the existing entity.

As for your map not loading, what exactly do you mean with 'it doesn't load properly'? Did you check whether the bsp file got copied to the right maps folder? What happens when you start Half-Life manually and type map roomone in the console?
WadMaker & SpriteMaker are finally finished!
It can be downloaded here. For more information, see the readme, or check out the Making textures with WadMaker tutorial.

These command-line tools can turn a directory full of images into a Half-Life wad file or into a directory full of sprites - just drag the directory onto the right tool. They can also extract textures from wad and bsp files, remove embedded textures from bsp files and convert sprites back into images.

WadMaker and SpriteMaker directly support png, jpg, gif, bmp and tga files, as well as Photoshop (psd, psb) and Krita files (kra, ora), and can be configured to call external conversion tools for other formats (example configurations for Gimp and Aseprite files are included). Both tools will automatically create a suitable 256-color palette for each texture or sprite. They will also apply a limited form of dithering, which can be disabled if necessary. For transparent textures and sprites, the alpha channel of the input image is compared against a configurable threshold, but it is also possible to treat a specific input color as transparent. For water textures, the fog color and intensity are derived from the image itself, but they can also be specified explicitly. Texture-specific settings can be overridden with a plain-text wadmaker.config file in the images directory. Common sprite settings such as orientation and texture format can be set within filenames, other settings can be overridden with a spritemaker.config file.

Why did I make these tools? First, I was investigating the various Half-Life file formats anyway. Second, I wanted a faster workflow than Wally and Half-Life Texture Tools (for me, running a batch file is faster than opening a GUI tool, dragging files around, saving a wad file, and closing the GUI tool). And finally, investigating various approaches to color quantization and dithering, and reading up on color spaces and color perception turned out to be very interesting.
Changes in v1.2:
  • Workflow: converts directories full of images to directories full of sprites, similar to how WadMaker works. Can also convert sprites back to images.
  • Efficiency: only modified files and settings are processed.
  • Configuration: common settings like sprite orientation and texture format can be configured within an image's filename. Other settings can be specified in spritemaker.config files.
  • Flexibility: accepts various image formats (png, jpg, gif, bmp, tga), Photoshop files (psd, psb) and Krita files (kra, ora). Input images can be true-color and can contain transparency, SpriteMaker will automatically generate a suitable palette. Support for other file formats can be enabled with converter rules (a global spritemaker.config file with example rules for Gimp and Aseprite files is provided).
  • Animation: animated sprites can be created with numbered image sequences, spritesheets and/or gif files.
New features/changes:
  • Added support for a global configuration file (a wadmaker.config file in the executable's directory). Global rules always apply, unless overridden by a local config file.
  • The provided global config file contains example rules for converting Gimp and Aseprite files and instructions on how to enable them.
  • Custom converters are no longer forced to output png files, the output file extension must now be specified in the converter arguments.
  • Custom converters can now also use {input_escaped} and {output_escaped} placeholders, for when backslashes need to be escaped.
  • Fixed a problem where processing transparent images with very little color variation could fail with an 'At least one color must be provided.' error.
  • Fixed that the dither-scale setting was not parsed correctly, so it could only effectively be set to 0 or 1.
  • Fixed that WadMaker would fail to create a wad file if the output directory did not exist.
  • Fixed that mipmaps were not extracted correctly.
  • Fixed some cases where WadMaker would fail to create a log file or a directory.

Changes in v1.1:
New features:
  • Added support for Photoshop files (.psd, .psb) that have been saved with 'maximize compatibility' enabled.
  • Added support for Krita (.kra) and OpenRaster (.ora) files.
  • Added support for creating and extracting decal wad files (decals.wad).
  • Updated the wadmaker.config system to apply all matching rules (with more specific rules overriding less specific ones).
  • Console output is now logged to a file (only in create-wad mode). This can be disabled with a command-line option.
  • Fixed that removing an image with an uppercase name would cause updating a wad file to fail.
  • Fixed that water color was accidentally black by default.
Posted 1 year ago2021-05-15 20:29:32 UTC
in Origin brush Post #345611
An origin brush is just a normal brush that's covered with the special 'ORIGIN' texture. The center of the brush determines the origin of the entity that it's part of - the origin brush itself is then discarded by the compile tools. If a rotating entity doesn't have an origin brush, its origin will be 0,0,0 (the center of the map), which often makes it look like it's flying all over the place.
Posted 1 year ago2021-04-28 23:15:29 UTC
in Where and When do i use Hint brushes? Post #345577
Hint brushes give you some control over how a map is split up into vis nodes by the compile tools. The 'HINT' side creates a new splitting plane, the 'SKIP' sides are ignored. In some cases you can improve performance by strategically breaking up nodes. Personally I think they're rarely needed if you keep limiting visibility in mind when designing a layout.

Here's a very crude example, showing a U-shaped corridor from above:
┌──────┐                ┌──────┐      ┌──┬───┐      ┌──────┐      ┌──┬───┐
└──┐   │  splits into:  └──┬───┤  or  └──┤   │  or  └──┬───┤  or  └──┤   │
┌──┘   │                ┌──┴───┤      ┌──┴───┤      ┌──┤   │      ┌──┤   │
└──────┘                └──────┘      └──────┘      └──┴───┘      └──┴───┘
As shown above, there are multiple ways in which this corridor can be split up into vis nodes. In the first 3 cases, every node is visible from any other node. But in the last case, the top-left node is not visible from the bottom-left node, and vice versa. With a hint brush, you can force the compile tools to produce that particular space partitioning.
You're returning from the function on the first line (return DefaultDeploy...), so the second line (EMIT_SOUND(...) is never executed.
Posted 1 year ago2021-04-07 14:48:07 UTC
in Help me, Lords of coding!! Post #345517
You may want to read Shephard62700FR's post more carefully, because there are two problems with your code:
  • it's immediately giving players a 15-seconds double-damage bonus when they spawn, instead of initializing the bonus-expiry time to -1.0f.
  • it's not giving a double-damage bonus when the damage-doubler item is touched, it's only checking whether the player currently has a double-damage bonus.
It's also not preventing the player from picking up another damage-bonus item if they already have an active damage bonus.

As for applying the damage bonus, FireBulletsPlayer is a CBaseEntity member function, so it doesn't know about CBasePlayer fields like m_flDoubleDamageBonusTime (it can be called on any entity, after all). One way to work around that is by creating a virtual float GetDamageBonus() function in CBaseEntity that returns 1.0f, but which you override in CBasePlayer to return 2.0f if HasDoubleDamageBonus() is true (you can look at the CBaseEntity::IsPlayer and CBasePlayer::IsPlayer functions for an example of how a virtual function can be overridden in a child class). You can then use that function inside FireBulletsPlayer as following:
pEntity->TraceAttack(pevAttacker, gSkillData.plrDmg9MM * GetDamageBonus(), vecDir, &tr, DMG_BULLET);

Some of the other weapons call TraceAttack directly, and since weapons contain a pointer to the player (CBasePlayer* m_pPlayer), you should be able to obtain the damage factor for them with m_pPlayer->GetDamageBonus(). For explosives I think you'll need to look at the RadiusDamage function, probably using CBaseEntity::Instance(ENT(pevInflictor))->GetDamageBonus() to get the damage bonus, if I understand how that works correctly.
It's about relative positioning, not absolute coordinates. Info_landmarks act as anchor points. When a level transition occurs, entities are repositioned in such a way that their relative position towards the info_landmark in the new map is the same as their relative position towards the info_landmark in the old map.

Imagine a level transition that takes place in a corner with a vending machine in the middle. To a player, it looks like there's just one corner and one vending machine, but in reality, both maps contain their own corner and their own vending machine. Of course, the illusion only works if both corners look the same and if both vending machines are in the same relative spot in each map. Now when a level-designer sees both maps, they can easily tell how the maps are connected, because those vending machines are so recognizable (they're 'landmarks'). That's pretty much how the game looks at info_landmarks.

If you still can't get it to work, then maybe you can upload both maps to the vault here so I or someone else can have a look.
Posted 1 year ago2021-04-04 14:39:28 UTC
in Make "skill" higher than 3? Post #345503
If you search for g_iSkillLevel, you'll see that the CGameRules::RefreshSkillData function in gamerules.cpp forces the skill-level between 1 and 3 before it looks up skill-specific health and damage values. But there are also a few places throughout the game-code where the skill-level is checked specifically, so it's a bit more complicated than just increasing the maximum skill-level value.
Posted 1 year ago2021-04-04 14:22:59 UTC
in Critical HELP -> Changing dialogue times Post #345502
If you can find someone who knows how to do this, then sure, that would be easiest.

If not, then you could learn how to do it yourself using the tools I mentioned. For example, if you decompile the first tutorial level, t0a0.bsp, and open up the resulting .map file in J.A.C.K., then you'll find a trigger_once in the middle of the first room. This triggers a multi_manager named intromm. When you look at the properties of that entity (press the SmartEdit button so you can see the raw keyvalues) then you'll see that it triggers multiple other entities, each at a specific time:
targetname   intromm -- the name of this multi_manager
intro        .5      -- someone at Valve forgot to remove this, because there's no entity with the name 'intro'
td1          15      -- the door to the HEV suit room
td1l         14.5    -- the light above the door to the HEV suit room
holo1light   0       -- the hologram light
sent_intro   0       -- the scripted_sentence entity for the hologram welcome speech (sentence: !HOLO_WELCOME)
sent_button  14.5    -- the scripted_sentence  for the hologram speech about buttons (sentence: !HOLO_BUTTON)
butlight     15.1    -- the light above the button in front of the hologram
butsprite    15.2    -- the twinkling sprite that shows up above the button
J.A.C.K. can display arrows between entities that trigger each other, but unfortunately that doesn't work for multi_managers. Fortunately J.A.C.K. does have a way to search for entities with specific names: in the menu, go to Map -> Entity report, then in the Filter area of that window, enable 'by key/value', enter 'targetname' as key and the name of the entity you're looking for as value.

In this case, we can see that the first scripted_sentence is triggered immediately, with another shorter speech triggered after 14.5 seconds, along with a door and some lights and sprites. If your translated speech has a different duration, then you'll have to modify all those 14/15 second delays. In BSPEdit, search for multi_manager entities until you find the one with the same targetname (in this case that's the first multi_manager). Here's what it looks like in BSPEdit:
"origin" "-1328 -1484 -4"
"butsprite" "15.2"
"butlight" "15.1"
"sent_button" "14.5"
"sent_intro" "0"
"holo1light" "0"
"td1l" "14.5"
"td1" "15"
"intro" ".5"
"targetname" "intromm"
"classname" "multi_manager"
The key/value order is different, but that doesn't matter. Now change the 14/15 second delays to something suitable and save the map. Just be sure not to remove or add any double-quotes, otherwise Half-Life won't be able to read these entities anymore.
Posted 1 year ago2021-04-03 20:45:01 UTC
in Critical HELP -> Changing dialogue times Post #345498
BSPEdit lets you to modify entity data inside .bsp files. If it's difficult to find which entities you need to change then it may be useful to decompile the maps, so you can look for the right entities in Hammer or J.A.C.K.
Posted 1 year ago2021-04-01 09:47:07 UTC
in Post your screenshots! WIP thread Post #345493
That's some high-quality mapping there, Andy_Shou! I like how detailed it all looks. The lighting looks very good too. I'm definitely looking forward to a release.

Good luck with the home-schooling bytheway!
Posted 1 year ago2021-03-23 10:08:58 UTC
in Presentation and urgent help Post #345473
The things I mentioned aren't necessarily bad, but they do increase the risk of encountering problems like this, so personally I just don't use the carve tool, and I only rotate by 90 degrees. For slopes I mostly use the shearing tool and I stick to 'safe' slopes like 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, etc. For more complex shapes I use vertex manipulation, often giving brushes triangular faces, and I turn them into entities. For more intricate details it's better to use models.

Carving and rotating can produce tiny cracks between brushes, such as in the (exaggerated) picture below. With off-grid vertices, you might not even see a crack, but brushes can still be misaligned. The BSP process divides the inside of a level into convex areas (leaf nodes), using surfaces as dividing planes. Depending on how the process goes, that tiny crack could become a small convex area of its own, or it could produce a very thin but long area that extends towards the left, splitting other surfaces along the way. Maybe the cause of your problem is an almost infinitely thin crack like this:
User posted image